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  1. Frontiers Psych
    Moderated online data-collection for developmental research: Methods and replications
    Chuey, A., Asaba, M., Bridgers, S., Carrillo, B., Dietz, G., Garcia, T., Leonard, J. A., Liu, S., Merrick, M., Radwan, S., Stegall, J., Velez, N., Woo, B., Wu, Y., Zhou, X. J., Frank, M. C., and Gweon, H.
    Front. Psychol. 2021
  2. CogSci
    Open-minded, not naıĢˆve: Three-month-old infants encode objects as the goals of other peopleā€™s reaches
    Woo, B. M., Liu, S., and Spelke, E. S.
    In Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society Jul 2021
  3. working paper
    iCatcher+: Robust and automatic gaze classification of infant webcam videos
    Cao, P., Tan, X., Scott, K. M., and Liu, S.
    Sep 2021
  4. ICML
    AGENT: A Benchmark for Core Psychological Reasoning
    In Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning Feb 2021


  1. CogSci
    Look before you leap: Quantitative tradeoffs between peril and reward in action understanding
    Gjata, N., Ullman, T. D., Spelke, E. S., and Liu, S.
    In Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society 2020


  1. PNAS
    Origins of the concepts cause, cost, and goal in prereaching infants
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. Sep 2019
  2. CogSci
    Hard choices: Childrenā€™s understanding of the cost of action selection
    In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society 2019
  3. CogSci
    Peopleā€™s perception of othersā€™ risk preferences
    Liu, S., McCoy, J., and Ullman, T.
    In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society 2019
  4. under revision
    Dangerous ground: Thirteen-month-old infants are sensitive to peril in other peopleā€™s actions
    Nov 2019



    1. Science
      Ten-month-old infants infer the value of goals from the costs of actions
      Science Nov 2017
    2. Cognition
      Six-month-old infants expect agents to minimize the cost of their actions
      Liu, S., and Spelke, E. S.
      Cognition 2017


    1. JNeuro
      A common cortical metric for spatial, temporal, and social distance
      Parkinson, C., Liu, S., and Wheatley, T.
      J. Neurosci. 2014